Parasomnia: Nightmares in Adults

Parasomnia: Nightmares in Adults

By Lynette Rivas

Nightmares are supposed to diminish as you grow up, right? While this is true for most of the population, it is not the case for some individuals. Research shows that between 2% and 8% of the adult population experiences frequent and distressing nightmares, otherwise known as parasomnia.

Nightmares are realistic and vividly disturbing dreams that awaken you from sleep. They most often occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is when most dreaming takes place, and occur closer to morning hours. Nightmares may include:

  • Vivid and upsetting dreams
  • Dreams involving threats to safety
  • Being awoken from the dream
  • Feeling anxious, scared, or sad as a result from the dream
  • Not being able to fall back to sleep due to the dream

For adults, nightmares are often spontaneous, but for some, there may be an underlying issue that can be used to explain these dreams. Nightmares can be triggered by stress, trauma, sleep deprivation, substance abuse, medications, or by simply watching a scary movie. Although nightmares occur occasionally compared to normal dreams, they are considered a disorder if they:

  • Occur frequently
  • Cause major distress throughout the day, such as anxiety or fear
  • Cause problems with concentration or memory
  • Cause daytime sleepiness

If these symptoms are occurring, then it is time to consult a doctor about possible treatments. The doctor will determine if the solution is through treatments and medication, or will give a referral to a psychologist or psychotherapist. Debilitating and frequent nightmares, or parasomnia, is a serious condition that can alter an individual’s life, so it is important to seek help if they occur.

If you or someone you know is experiencing debilitating/frequent nightmares please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit https://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Sources:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/nightmare-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20353515

https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/nightmares-in-adults#:~:text=Nightmares%20in%20adults%20can%20be,to%20have%20the%20condition%20themselves.

https://iconscout.com/illustration/nocturnal-panic-attack-5222908

Insomnia: How Depression Is Related to Insomnia

By Kim Simone

Symptoms of insomnia occur in approximately 33% to 50% of the adult population and undoubtedly affect a variety of areas of an individual’s life. In addition to a complaint of dissatisfaction with sleep quality or quantity, individuals may have difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early-morning awakening with an inability to fall back to sleep. These difficulties may occur at least 3 nights per week and be present for at least 3 months.

Oftentimes, these sleep disturbances affect various parts of an individual’s daily life. As a result of poor sleep, individuals struggling with insomnia may display difficulties behaviorally, socially, academically.

Those struggling with depression oftentimes present with symptoms of insomnia, as the condition may influence their quality and/or quantity of sleep. Depressive symptoms often influence an individual’s quality of sleep and how much they sleep.

On the contrary, those struggling with insomnia oftentimes present with symptoms of depression. Since feelings of depression may cause individuals to lose interest in their daily activities and withdraw from those closest to them, therapy is often the treatment of choice to alleviate the depressive symptoms that result from a lack of quality and quantity of sleep.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can be useful in the treatment of insomnia. CBT-I is a form of CBT specifically aimed in treating the sleep condition. It concentrates on the specific thoughts and behaviors that disrupt sleep and helps in reframing the negative thoughts that may be associated with concepts related to sleep, such as “bed” and “sleep”.  As a result of CBT, anxieties related to sleep may be lessened, therefore, lessening the prevalence of insomnia.  

Sufferers of insomnia may need to speak to their therapist weekly over the course of two to three months to see an improvement in the quality and quantity of their sleep. As a result, symptoms of depression may be lessened, which may further improve the quality and quantity of their sleep.

If you or someone you know is struggling with insomnia and is seeking therapy, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Sources:

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12119-insomnia#:~:text=They%20affect%20up%20to%2070,at%2010%25%20to%2015%25.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/insomnia

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Night Terrors: Terror Filled Sleep for Children

Unlike nightmares, night terrors are consistent episodes of intense screaming, crying, trashing, or fear during sleep. These episodes are reoccurring and usually occur in children between the ages of 3-12. About 1 to 6 in 100 children have night terrors, which occur in both boys and girls and children of all races. Night terrors are very rare, occur 3-6% in children, and typically tend to run in families. About 80% of children have a family member who experiences the same thing.

How are night terrors different from nightmares?

  • Nightmares commonly occur during REM sleep, while night terrors do not and will occur during non-REM sleep. You might find that it is hard to wake your child during a night terror episode and they will most likely not remember what occurred the next morning.

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Fast heart rate
  • Fast breathing
  • Sweating
  • Dilated pupils
  • Flailing around in bed
  • Screaming
  • Looks awake but confused
  • Not talking
  • Non-responsive
  • Cannot recognize that a parent is there
  • Acts upset or scared

What causes Night Terrors?

Night terrors are caused by an over-arousal of the central nervous system during sleep. The following factors have been noted in children who have experienced night terrors:

  • Overtired, ill, or stressed
  • Taking new medicine
  • Sleeping in a new environment
  • Not getting enough sleep
  • Having too much caffeine

How can you help your child?

The best way to help your child is to wait it out and make sure they do not get hurt during the night terror episode. Also, it is important to note that it is best to not wake your child during the episode. Waking them during this episode can cause more disorientation and confusion. However, you can help prevent future night terrors by:

  • Reducing the child’s stress
  • Create a bedtime routine that is relaxing and simple
  • Make sure the child gets enough sleep
  • Do not let your child stay up too late

If night terrors occur repeatedly, talk to your child’s doctor to see if further evaluations and/or referrals are needed.

If you are someone you know appears to be suffering from issues linked to night terrors, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201)368-3700 or (212)722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

Sources: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/terrors.html

https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/night-terrors

Image: https://www.alaskasleep.com/blog/night-terrors-vs-nightmares-how-to-help-terrified-child

Laziness: The Harmful Effects of the Term “Lazy” on Mental Health

By: Rebecca Fernandez

               “Lazy” is a common uncomplimentary term in modern vocabulary for when someone is unproductive. Think back to a time a group member failed to pull their weight in a group project, or a time someone procrastinated severely, leaving everything for the last minute and creating a poor final product. Consider even a time where you witnessed someone who, by early afternoon, was seemingly unable to bring themselves to get out of bed to start the day.

Whether it was yourself or someone else that you imagined, it’s easy to write off everyone in those examples as lazy. However, there’s a major issue with doing that – “laziness” is often not the cause of these situations. Rather, many mental health conditions can create issues that simulate behaviors identical to laziness.

Take, for example, disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and other mood disorders, insomnia and other sleep disorders, and anxiety disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Each of these conditions can negatively impact a person’s ability to be productive, making them appear lazy. People with ADHD can often find themselves imagining all of the tasks they could be engaging in at once and becoming so overwhelmed they feel almost paralyzed. People with depression and other mood disorders often lack the mental energy to accomplish anything. Similarly, people with insomnia and other sleep disorders often lack the physical energy to accomplish anything. People with GAD may have a crippling fear that they won’t be good enough at something, preventing them from attempting to do the task in question. People with OCD may have a crippling (rational or irrational) fear that something bad will happen if they do specific things, preventing them from doing those things.

               All of these explanations are generalized and therefore may not apply to everyone with each listed disorder, or be the only applicable factor for each disorder’s effect on laziness. However, if you or someone you know has been consistently labeled as lazy, remember that “laziness” is often more than how it appears on the surface, and that actively struggling with mental health does not make a person a failure.

If you or someone you know is exhibiting signs of “laziness” as described above that are getting in the way of day-to-day life, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/hide-and-seek/201410/the-psychology-laziness

Procrastinating before bed? This might be why

By Katie Weinstein

Revenge bedtime procrastination is defined as the decision to sacrifice sleep for leisure activities. The reason it is called “revenge” bedtime procrastination is to get back at the day time hours for stealing away free time. Many people are tired when going to bed and intend to go to sleep, but chose to binge shows on Netflix or scroll through hours of Tik Toks without an external reason to stay awake, meaning there is an intention-behavior gap. 

Since revenge bedtime procrastination is still a relatively new idea in sleep science, the underlying psychology explaining this phenomenon is still being debated. One explanation is that daytime workload depletes our capacity for self-control, so we can’t fight our urge to stay awake to participate in leisure activities even though it means we will be better rested for the next day. Another explanation might be that some people are naturally “night owls” and are forced to adapt to an early schedule, so this is their way of finding time to recover from stress. A third explanation might be that, during the pandemic, domestic and work lives are blurred as people work overtime hours and do not divide work time from leisure time. 

The reason that it is important to be aware of revenge bedtime procrastination is because sleep is essential for our physical and mental health. Sleep deprivation can cause daytime sleepiness, which harms productivity, thinking, and memory as well causing physical effects such as insufficient immune function and increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. 

In order to prevent revenge bedtime procrastination, try putting away technology 30 minutes before bed, create a regular bedtime routine, avoid caffeine late in the afternoon, and find time for leisure activities during the day. It is also important to recognize when you need help managing your procrastination and your sleep problems.

If you or someone you know is struggling with revenge bedtime procrastination or other types of sleep problems, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

https://www.sleepfoundation.org/sleep-hygiene/revenge-bedtime-procrastination

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/revenge-bedtime-procrastination-a-plight-of-our-times#Tips-for-better-sleep

Dreams & Nightmares

Dreams & Nightmares

By: Daniela Vargas

Dreams are images, ideas, emotions and sensations that occur in our minds while we sleep. Dreams happen during the REM stage, which stands for Rapid Eye Movement. This is the stage where our brain activity is the most active and resembles the state of being awake. Dreams can occur during other stages, but they are not as vivid and we usually don’t remember those dreams. Dreams can last from a couple of seconds to 20 – 30 minutes. On average people have 5 dreams; some can have up to 7.

            Sometimes dreams turn into nightmares and those can lead to psychological distress. Nightmares can cause post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorder, dissociation and psychological changes. “Re-experiencing” is a common symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder, also known as flashbacks.

            These nightmares can get worse and lead to insomnia. Therapy can help your sleep schedule become regular; it can also help with post traumatic distress order.

If you or someone you know is in the need of help with destressing from dreams or nightmares please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey arrange an appointment with one of our licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. You can contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201)-368-3700 or (212) – 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

Sources: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/dreaming

https://www.sleepassociation.org/about-sleep/dreams/

Image: https://www.stockvault.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Nightmares-23.jpg

What Do Dreams Tell Us About Our Mental Health?

   By: Kassandra Lora

Have you ever wondered if dreams are a reflection of our subconscious trying to send a message or if they are just meaningless? What do these specific dreams tell us about our mental health?

    One type of dreaming, besides the occasional nightmares, is lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is when the dreamer is aware they are dreaming but, without waking up, they can control what they do in the dream as well as the outcome of the dream. Some people lucid dream regularly while others rarely and some cannot lucid dream at all. So, what does lucid dreaming show us about our mental health? In an article written in the PsychologyToday magazine, they discussed an observation conducted with a group of undergraduate students who participated in a sleep study. The results stated how, “Intense lucid dreamers had, on average, lower levels of psychological distress.” It was explained that individuals who have more intense lucid dreams had less depression, stress, and anxiety than individuals who had less intense lucid dreams.  However, those who don’t lucid dream at all had no difference in psychological wellbeing when compared to those who have very intense lucid dreams.  It is interesting to see how something like lucid dreaming can have such a perspective on psychological health.

    Besides measuring psychological distress, according to the Psych Central website, dreams have many mental health benefits as well. Some benefits of dreams include:

  • Helping you learn: Dreams allow your brain to make sense of new information that has been learned.
  • Being therapeutic to a person: dreams can help a person heal real-life emotions through dreams.
  • Helping you overcome your fear: lucid dreaming can allow you to practice facing and overcoming what you are afraid to do in real life.

If you or someone you know needs help regarding sleep and dreams, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/social-instincts/201804/what-dreams-may-tell-you-about-your-mental-health

https://psychcentral.com/blog/brain-and-mental-health-benefits-of-dreaming#2

Image source: https://wallhere.com/en/wallpaper/781179

Acute Stress Disorder: Reliving trauma

Acute Stress Disorder: reliving trauma
By: Zoe Alekel

It is not uncommon to experience a traumatic event in life. In fact, trauma related incidences range from experiencing a car accident, to experiencing an assault or witnessing a crime. All of these stressful situations can be lead causes to an anxiety disorder known as Acute Stress Disorder (ASD). According to the American Institute of Stress, ASD is defined by Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms that occur for a short time after experiencing a trauma—an experience that can be emotionally distressful and painful, and that can cause mental and physical symptoms. After experiencing a traumatic event, it is not uncommon to develop ASD; in fact 5-20% of people that experience traumatic events will develop ASD.

Symptoms of ASD include intrusion symptoms, like involuntary distressing memories; negative mood symptoms, such as the inability to experience positive emotions like love and happiness; dissociative symptoms, like seeing yourself from the outside, the feeling that nothing is real and that time is slowed down; avoidance symptoms, such as avoiding thoughts, feelings, and places associated with the trauma; and arousal symptoms, such as trouble falling or staying asleep, irritable behavior, and difficulty concentrating.

This can be extremely overwhelming and invasive to someone who has experienced a traumatic event, and it is uncomfortable to feel as if you have to relive the event itself. However, ASD does not have to take over your life completely. By implementing an immediate therapeutic intervention right after the trauma, it decreases the likelihood of ASD becoming prolonged and turning into PTSD. Ways to manage the stress and anxiety that comes with ASD are mindfulness and relaxation, talking to a trained trauma specialist, and having a support system that you can confide in.

If you or someone you know is struggling with Acute Stress Disorder, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ Sources: https://www.stress.org/acute-stress-disorder https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/acute-stress-disorder

Sources:

https://www.stress.org/acute-stress-disorder

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/acute-stress-disorder

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PTSD Researcher Finds Link between Stress and Trauma

By Diana Bae

Rachel Yehuda, PhD, is a distinguished researcher and Director of Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Icahn School of Medicine of Mount Sinai. She has conducted numerous prominent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) studies and treatment. One of her most well-known studies researched Vietnam War combat veterans with PTSD and found that they had significantly lower cortisol levels than veterans without PTSD. Cortisol is a hormone that controls stress and although it is thought that more cortisol resulted in more stress, Dr. Yehuda showed that that is not the case. Thus, there needs to be a sufficient amount of cortisol to handle stress and reduce the risk of developing trauma. Now, Dr. Yehuda plans to test a drug, oral hydrocortisone, to see whether it can replicate the cortisol naturally produced in the body. If this drug is successful, it may prevent PTSD and other similar disorders.

Arista Psychological and Psychiatric Services understands the problems caused by PTSD and are dedicated to provide proper attention and treatment. If you or someone you know would like to set up an appointment for our counseling services, contact us at our offices in Paramus, NJ (201) 368-3700 or in Manhattan, NY (212) 996-3939. For more information, please visit our website https://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Source: Inside, a publication of the Mount Sinai Health System, Issue: November 25 – December 15, 2019;  Picture Source: http:// www. thesuburban.com/life/lifestyles/can-trauma-be-transmitted-intergenerationally-oct-dawson-college-peace-centre/article_ea2d7bb0-b063-11e7-aee3-5b0d013065f7.html, https:// askopinion.com/how-to-deal-with-ptsd-aka-post-traumatic-stress-disorder

Hypnosis: The Basics!

Hypnosis: The Basics!

By Lauren Hernandez

            In today’s fast paced, technology filled world, it is important to take care of your mental health and address stress and anxiety with a mental health professional. There are various methods of treating anxiety, stress, and depression, and one of those methods is Hypnosis. According to PsychologyToday, hypnosis is the technique of “putting someone into a state of heightened concentration where they are more suggestible”. Hypnosis is achieved through soothing verbal repetition which relaxes a patient into a trance-like state, allowing the patient to be more open minded to transformative messages. Hypnosis allows a patient to be guided through relaxation, while still being in control. Hypnosis is utilized in accordance with other treatments to help patients overcome mental health issues. Hypnosis is ineffective as a sole treatment method, but is beneficial to a patient when used with other methods of therapy.

Hypnosis can help treat:

  • Bad habits such as smoking
  • Stress, anxiety, and depression
  • Pain, pain associated with autoimmune diseases
  • Fatigue
  • Mood disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Specific phobias

If you are interested in trying another method to treat your anxiety, depression, or any other mental health issues, it is important to reach out to a licensed psychotherapist who can safely and effectively assist you with the use of hypnosis.

 

Sources:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/hypnosis

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/life-without-anxiety/201706/hypnotherapy-and-its-benefits-autoimmune-disease

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