Bipolar One Vs. Bipolar Two

By: Yael Berger

Bipolar, also known as manic depression, is a mood disorder characterized by extreme highs and extreme lows. Extreme highs are called mania while the extreme lows are called depression. It is seen in both adults and children and tends to run in the family. If you have a close relative with Bipolar disorder, you have an increased chance of developing the disorder. According to the national institute of mental health, “an estimated 4.4% of U.S adults experience bipolar disorder at some time in their lives.” There are two different types of Bipolar that are often difficult to distinguish between.

Bipolar I patients commonly present with these symptoms:

  • An episode of extreme mania lasting at least one week and usually an episode of severe depression lasting at least two weeks
    • Mania is characterized by irritability, mood swings, and possibly excessive spending, drinking, excessive sexual behavior etc.
  • Less need for sleep
  • Increased self-esteem, speech, thoughts, distractibility
  • Rapid mood swings
  • Can have a break with reality
    • Hallucinations, delusional or paranoid thoughts
  • Usual onset: around 18 years old

Bipolar II patients commonly present with these symptoms:

  • An episode of hypomania lasting at least four days and always accompanied by an episode of extreme depression lasting at least two weeks
  • Hypomania is a milder form of mania but it is still noticeable to others
  • Typically are prescribed antidepressants with mood stabilizers
  • Usual onset: around mid-20s

There are a few key differences between bipolar I and bipolar II. The main difference is that Bipolar I often begins with mania while Bipolar II often begins as a depressive episode that is later diagnosed when an episode of hypomania occurs. Bipolar II is sometimes wrongly diagnosed as depression at first because it often starts as a depressive episode. Bipolar I is usually obvious and severely disrupts a patient’s life while Bipolar II can be less noticeable. However, once a hypomanic episode in Bipolar II patient causes severe impairment it would then be categorized as Bipolar I. Bipolar I can lead to hospitalization more often than Bipolar II because of the extreme mania that occurs. A combination of medication and therapy can help both Bipolar I and II.

If you or someone you know has any type of Bipolar Disorder, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit https://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Sources:

https://www.healthline.com/health/bipolar-disorder/bipolar-1-vs-bipolar-2#symptoms

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/bipolar-disorder.shtml

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/two-takes-depression/201901/10-things-know-about-bipolar-disorder

Image:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319280.php

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Antidepressants: What Happens When You Stop Taking Your Medication

Antidepressants: What Happens When You Stop Taking Your Medication

Antidepressants: What Happens When You Stop Taking Your Medication

By: Julia Keys

Anti-depressant discontinuation syndrome occurs when a person suddenly stops taking their anti-depressants. Sometimes individuals decide to go off of their medication because of side effects such as weight gain, nausea, or sexual dysfunction. Another common reason why individuals stop their medication “cold turkey” is because they may feel as if the medication has changed their personality. Anti-depressants are not meant to change one’s personality, but sometimes they can cause fogginess or fatigue which can make the patient feel “not like themselves” or “out of it”. However, abruptly going off medication can cause symptoms that are more painful and severe than the side effects one might feel on an anti-depressant that is not right for them.

The effects of anti-depressant discontinuation can be felt as early as a couple hours to as late as a couple days after missing a dose depending on the type of anti-depressant. Symptoms are typically ameliorated within six to twenty four hours after taking the missed dose.

Symptoms of Anti-depressant discontinuation syndrome:

  • Nausea
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Problems with balance
  • “brain zaps” or “brain shocks”, the sensation of a jolt of electricity running through the head, neck or limbs
  • Anxiety

Unlike illegal drugs, phasing out of anti-depressants can be a painless process if done correctly. In order to go off of anti-depressants successfully, one must slowly wean themselves off the medication with the help of a psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner.

Tips to prevent or minimize anti-depressant discontinuation syndrome:

  • NEVER stop taking medication without talking to your doctor
  • Follow your doctor’s directions exactly when going off your meds. If you start to feel any of the symptoms of anti-depressant discontinuation syndrome contact your doctor as soon as possible
  • Set a reminder on your phone or computer to take your medication each day
  • Always keep your medication in the same place
  • Make sure to keep on top of your doctor’s appointments by putting them in a calendar so that you will never run out of medication by accident

If you are struggling with mental health issues and are in need of treatment, do not hesitate to seek help by contacting Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy, located in New York and New Jersey to speak to licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners or psychotherapists. To contact the office in Paramus NJ, call (201) 368-3700. To contact the office in Manhattan, call (212) 722-1920. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ .

Sources:

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p449.html

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p449.html

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Antidepressants

Antidepressants

By: Lauren Hernandez

            If you or someone you know has been seeing a psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner for treatment of depression, there are various types of antidepressants a mental health provider can prescribe. It is important to be familiar with different types of antidepressants in order for you, as the patient, to understand what the medication actually does on a neurological level.

The most common type of antidepressant prescribed is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, known as an SSRI. SSRIs mainly treat depression but they are also effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter in the brain which impacts your mood, sexual desire, appetite, sleep, memory and learning as well as other similar functions. On a neurological level, SSRIs prevent serotonin reabsorption which builds up serotonin in the synapse. This allows receptors to receive the signal and react with the optimal amount of serotonin. People suffering from major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders typically have lower serotonin levels. By preventing reabsorption in the synapse via medications, symptoms of these disorders may decrease. In 1987 Prozac was the first approved for treatment of those with depression and became one of the most prescribed antidepressants. Other common SSRIs include Lexapro, Paxil, Zoloft, and Celexa.

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs differ from SSRIs in that they block the reabsorption of serotonin and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that influences hormones and the “fight or flight” response in the brain. Approved SNRIs include Cymbalta, Pristiq and Effexor XR.

Some of the other common types of antidepressants prescribed include norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) which block the reabsorption of norepinephrine and dopamine. This is only seen to be effective in the medication bupropion, which is also known as Wellbutrin. Other types of antidepressants that are less common include Tetracyclics (TCA’s), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI’s), and Serotonin Antagonist and Reuptake Inhibitors. These older medications are not prescribed as frequently because of the development of newer medications that effectively decrease symptoms and have fewer side effects.

Medication is helpful; however, it is most effective when used in combination with different types of psychotherapy or support groups. If you or someone you know is struggling with depression or any type of anxiety or mood disorder, it is important to seek professional help from a psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner who can provide antidepressants as well as support through talk therapy. If you or someone you know is currently taking antidepressants, it is extremely important to continue taking the medication and avoid discontinuations.

If you or a loved one is suffering from depression, anxiety, or a mood disorder, please contact Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy, located in New York and New Jersey to speak to licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners or psychotherapists. To contact the office in Paramus NJ, call (201) 368-3700. To contact the office in Manhattan, call (212) 722-1920. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ .

 

 

Sources:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/antidepressants/art-20044970

https://www.webmd.com/depression/how-different-antidepressants-work#1-3

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Suicide Prevention: What Can You Do to Help?

Suicide Prevention: What Can You Do to Help?

By Lauren Hernandez

                If someone you care about has recently expressed suicidal thoughts or has told you they have attempted suicide, it is important to offer support to that person and to seek professional help. Suicide attempts are often triggered when a person cannot handle the certain stressors and do not have stable coping mechanisms to overcome these obstacles. People considering suicide typically struggle with other mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, Borderline Personality Disorder, or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as well as a variety of other conditions. If someone has shared their suicidal thoughts with you, provide them with close comfort by staying with them. Even if you are unsure of what to say, it is important for that person to know that they are not alone.

It is important to make a plan, that encourages at risk individuals to see a provider such as a psychologist or psychiatric nurse practitioner who can offer professional help. If they are overwhelmed by their workload, perhaps try to ease their worries by offering to help them complete specific burdening tasks. It is important to offer them a way in which they can surround themselves with supportive people, perhaps invite them to a relaxing and judgement free space with a few friends. Additionally, help them to find ways in which they can practice self-care, healthy eating, exercise, and sleep, as well as listening to music and other activities that help to boost mood.

It is important to recognize that although you are trying to help a loved one to the best of your ability, the person struggling with suicidal thoughts needs professional care and therapy. There is only so much you can do to help and that is why reaching out to safety networks is essential. Other resources you should find in your area include mental health providers such as a psychologist or psychiatric nurse practitioner who can work with the patient to create a plan and prescribe medication. If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, call 9-1-1 to request immediate assistance and hospitalization to prevent self-harm or a possible suicide from happening. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is a 24/7 confidential Lifeline which is available at any time for anyone in the United States to get support if you or a loved one is in crisis. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline’s number is 1-800-273-8255. To find more information on how to help yourself or someone in crisis can be found on these websites:

https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org/help-yourself/

https://afsp.org/find-support/my-loved-one-made-attempt/loved-one-made-attempt/.

If you or a loved one is suffering from suicidal thoughts please contact Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy, located in New York and New Jersey to speak to licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners or psychotherapists. To contact the office in Paramus NJ, call (201) 368-3700. To contact the office in Manhattan, call (212) 722-1920. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ .

 

 

 

 

Sources:

https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org/help-yourself/

https://afsp.org/find-support/my-loved-one-made-attempt/loved-one-made-attempt/.

Image Source:

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Hypnosis: The Basics!

Hypnosis: The Basics!

By Lauren Hernandez

            In today’s fast paced, technology filled world, it is important to take care of your mental health and address stress and anxiety with a mental health professional. There are various methods of treating anxiety, stress, and depression, and one of those methods is Hypnosis. According to PsychologyToday, hypnosis is the technique of “putting someone into a state of heightened concentration where they are more suggestible”. Hypnosis is achieved through soothing verbal repetition which relaxes a patient into a trance-like state, allowing the patient to be more open minded to transformative messages. Hypnosis allows a patient to be guided through relaxation, while still being in control. Hypnosis is utilized in accordance with other treatments to help patients overcome mental health issues. Hypnosis is ineffective as a sole treatment method, but is beneficial to a patient when used with other methods of therapy.

Hypnosis can help treat:

  • Bad habits such as smoking
  • Stress, anxiety, and depression
  • Pain, pain associated with autoimmune diseases
  • Fatigue
  • Mood disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Specific phobias

If you are interested in trying another method to treat your anxiety, depression, or any other mental health issues, it is important to reach out to a licensed psychotherapist who can safely and effectively assist you with the use of hypnosis.

 

Sources:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/hypnosis

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/life-without-anxiety/201706/hypnotherapy-and-its-benefits-autoimmune-disease

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Hoarding

Hoarding

By Lauren Hernandez

                Hoarding is a disorder characterized by the continuous inability to get rid of belongings that have no significant value. While Hollywood has made hoarding a spectacle for consumers, hoarding is a serious condition which threatens the safety and livelihood of many people around the world. People with hoarding disorder will accumulate random items they believe they have an emotional attachment to or because they think they might need the item in the future.

Typically hoarding begins in adolescence and the severity of the condition worsens over time. The cause is still unknown, however hoarding disorder can be prompted by experience of a traumatic event, if a family member has had the disorder, or if a person has difficulty making decisions. People who hoard may suffer from depression, anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorder. If a hoarder continuously refuses to throw items away, their home will be covered in growing piles of random objects. This poses a serious threat to their health and to the health of the people around them. The clutter inside a home often deems the house unlivable, and there is a greater risk for falling and tripping over items. In addition, there is an increased risk of fires, and mold due to rotting food and other items that are wasting away. People who hoard also typically struggle with personal hygiene which can be associated with other mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety.

According to DSM-5, the following symptoms are diagnostic of hoarding disorder:

  • Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their value or lack thereof
  • The difficulty in discarding possession is due to distress associated with getting rid of them
  • The difficulty in discarding possession leads to clutter of living spaces and compromises the use of living spaces
  • The hoarding creates clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning, including the ability to maintain a safe space

A person who hoards is unable to recognize that their hoarding activity is problematic and dangerous. If you or someone you know might have hoarding tendencies perhaps attempt to either clean the space, if it does not cause too much distress, or leave it. If attempting to clean causes too much distress, seek professional help. “The primary treatments used to relieve symptoms of hoarding disorder include cognitive-behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). One or the other, or both, may be employed” (PsychologyToday).

If you or someone you know is engaging in hoarding activities, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/hoarding-disorder

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Does My Child Have Oppositional Defiant Disorder?

Does My Child Have Oppositional Defiant Disorder?

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

By Lauren Hernandez

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is a disorder characterized by a pattern of disruptive, argumentative, and hostile behaviors towards authority figures. The condition is present within children and teenagers and is oftentimes difficult to diagnose primarily by a parent may believe their child is simply stubborn or overly emotional. However, if the child’s behavior is intentionally persistent with extremely negative, angry, or uncooperative attitudes, treatment options should be considered.

Oftentimes children with ODD are exposed to several risk factors such as poverty, family instability, trauma, a significant transition, a parent with a behavioral or mood disorder, and neglectful parents or parents who are punitive or overly strict. Additionally, if a child struggles to fit in at school with their peers, they may be at more risk towards engaging in ODD like behaviors because they feel as though nobody can relate to them. Children with ODD are likely to have coexisting disorders such as anxiety, ADHD, depression, or learning disorders.

Symptoms of ODD according to PsychologyToday:

  • Angry Irritable mood
    • Losing temper
    • Touchy or easily annoyed by others
    • Angry and resentful
  • Argumentative/ Defiant Behavior
    • Argues with authority figures or adults
    • Defies or refuses to comply with authority figures or rules
    • Deliberately annoys others
    • Blames others for their mistakes or unruly behavior
  • Vindictiveness
    • Spiteful or vindictive at least twice within the past six months

If your child or a child you know is engaging in these types of behaviors, it is important to seek treatment from a psychiatrist or psychiatric nurse practitioner. The typical method of treatment includes behavioral and family therapy, parental training, and medication. Treating ODD early helps to prevent the development of a more serious and urgent mental health disorder.

If you or someone you know is struggling with ODD like behavior, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

 

 

Sources:

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/liking-the-child-you-love/201603/how-tell-if-your-child-has-oppositional-defiant-disorder

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/oppositional-defiant-disorder

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Bipolar Disorder: Signs of Mania and Depression

By: Julia Keys

      Bipolar Disorder is a psychological diagnosis that is characterized by the cycling of states of mania and depression. Mania can be described as an extreme elevation in mood while depression is an extremely low mood.

     There are two main diagnoses for people with bipolar disorder: Bipolar I and Bipolar II. People with Bipolar I experience the extremes of both mania and depression. Bipolar II involves milder and shorter manic episodes than Bipolar I, but still includes severe depressive episodes.

     There are two other lesser known types of bipolar disorder; cyclothymic disorder and bipolar disorder with mixed features. Cyclothymic disorder is a milder version of bipolar disorder where mood swings are still present, but are less severe. Bipolar disorder with mixed features is when a person experiences features of manic and depressive episodes at the same time.

Common features of a manic episode includes:

  • Increased self-esteem
  • Little concern for the consequences of actions
  • Racing thoughts
  • Fast speech
  • Impulsivity
  • Sleeping very little
  • Sometimes delusions and hallucinations

Common features of a depressive episode includes:

  • Feelings of worthlessness
  • Eating too much or eating too little
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Loss of pleasure in activities that were previously pleasurable
  • Suicidal thoughts

If you or someone you know is struggling with bipolar disorder, please contact Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy, located in New York and New Jersey to speak to a licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners or psychotherapists. To contact the office in Paramus NJ, call (201) 368-3700. To contact the office in Manhattan, call (212) 722-1920. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ .

Source:

https://psychcentral.com/lib/phases-of-bipolar-disorder/

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Bipolar Disorder: Cognitive Deficits of Which You May Not Be Aware

By Samantha Glosser

When you hear the term “bipolar disorder” your first thoughts are most likely about the cycle of elevated and depressed moods, of extreme highs and extreme lows. This is to be expected, as these states of mania and depression are hallmark features of bipolar disorder, and they are typically the symptoms highlighted by mainstream media. In mania, individuals exhibit symptoms of high energy, decreased need for sleep, feelings of euphoria, extreme irritability, and impulsivity. In a depressive state, individuals display symptoms of low energy, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, avolition, and suicidal ideation.

Sometimes there can be more to bipolar disorder than just these symptoms. For some, after the onset of bipolar disorder symptoms, there is a marked decrease in cognitive capacity across a few different areas. Typical cognitive deficits reported with bipolar disorder include the following: difficulties with working memory, such as word retrieval, and executive functioning, such as problems with planning, prioritizing, and organizing behavior. Individuals also experience difficulties retaining information that was just presented to them and can even experience slowed thought processes. These adverse cognitive impacts appear at both polarities of mood. It is also important to distinguish between two types of cognitive deficits: mood-phase specific and enduring. Mood-phase specific cognitive deficits are typical to most individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder, as these symptoms are only present during periods of mood intensity. Enduring deficits, on the other hand, will remain present even when an individual has sustained a period of partial remission or is at a baseline level of functioning (i.e., they are not experiencing mania or depression). Not everyone diagnosed with bipolar disorder experiences enduring cognitive deficits. Individuals with a history of higher acuity symptoms, as well as individuals with a history of treatment resistant symptoms, treatment non-compliance, and/or unhealthy lifestyle choices are more likely to suffer from enduring cognitive deficits.

If you or someone you know appears to be suffering from bipolar disorder, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/


Source: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/bipolar-you/201412/cognitive-deficit-in-bipolar-disorder

Bipolar Disorder: What Is It and What Treatments Are Available

By Stephanie Osuba

Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder with cycling emotions of highs (mania) and lows (depression) by the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Periods of mania can last for as little as two days and as long as fourteen days at a time. It is this period of elevated mood and heightened irritability that sets bipolar disorder apart from the diagnosis of clinical depression. During a manic episode, people experience elevated moods of extreme happiness, decreased need for sleep, hyperactivity, and racing thoughts which manifest in pressured speech. Because mania makes people feel like they are on top of the world, people also tend to engage in risky behavior of sexual nature or even substance abuse to maintain the high. Manic episodes can also bring on an intense and easily irritable mood, which can also lead to a risk of violence. Besides one manic episode, in order to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder one must have had a depressive episode as well. This period can last from a few days to even months and is characterized by extreme sadness, disinterest in pleasurable activities, lack of energy, and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness.

There are two kinds of bipolar disorder, one being more manic and the other being more depressive. Bipolar I is characterized by one fully manic episode, that must last at least a week, and a depressive episode. Bipolar II is characterized by a period of depression and a period of hypomania. Hypomania has all the symptoms of a manic episode; however it usually doesn’t last as long, only about a few days. The speed at which people cycle through emotions largely depends on the person. Treatment for this disorder can either psychotherapy or medication. Most people seem to benefit greatly from a combined treatment of both. A common medication prescribed for this disorder is a mood stabilizer and even sometimes an antidepressant or other psychotropic medication. It’s best to talk to a professional in order to find the best individual treatment plan.

Source: Grohol, J. M., Psy. D. (2018, May 18). Bipolar Disorder – What is it? Can it be treated? Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/disorders/bipolar/ 

If you or someone you know is struggling with bipolar disorder, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/