Postpartum Depression: Psychosocial Risk Factors

Postpartum Depression: Psychosocial Risk Factors

Written by: Jinal Kapadia

Postpartum depression, is a mood disorder that can affect women after childbirth. Mothers with postpartum depression generally experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that can make it difficult for them to complete daily care activities for themselves or for others. (Nimh.nih.gov, 2018)

There are multiple risk factors that make some women more susceptible to postpartum depression than others. A first-time mother is at a higher risk for depression. Fatigue, which can be caused by the actual process of giving birth, the energy spent on caring for the baby, and tending to other responsibilities can also lead to depression. Women who are single mothers with less social support are also more susceptible. A woman’s feelings towards her pregnancy, such as negativity or ambivalence, increases her chances for depression. (Psychology Today, 2018)

Another risk factor is a woman’s past, such as the loss of her mother or a poor mother-daughter relationship. This can cause a woman to feel unsure about her newly developing relationship with her baby. Women who have babies by cesarean birth take longer to recover and are, therefore, more likely to be stressed, have lower self-esteem, and feel more depressed. Women who have premature babies often become depressed because the early birth results in unexpected changes in routine and is an added stressor. Lastly, a baby with a birth defect or other challenges (e.g. infantile colic) can make adjustment even more difficult for parents. (Psychology Today, 2018)

If you or someone you know has postpartum depression or seems to have the symptoms of postpartum depression, and needs help, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

Sources:

Psychology Today. (2018). Postpartum Disorder | Psychology Today. [online] Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/postpartum-disorder [Accessed 12 Apr. 2018].

Nimh.nih.gov. (2018). Postpartum Depression Facts. [online] Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtml [Accessed 12 Apr. 2018].

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Eating Disorders & OCD: Is There a Relationship?

Is There A Relationship between OCD & Eating Disorders?

By: Cassie Sieradzky

Eating disorders and OCD are highly comorbid. Statistics estimate that about two-thirds of those diagnosed with an eating disorder have also been diagnosed with another type of anxiety disorder, specifically, 41% of individuals with an eating disorder also meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

OCD is characterized by recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive and unwanted. Individuals with OCD attempt to ignore or suppress their thoughts, urges, or images by performing some behavior (compulsion).

Obsessive-compulsive behaviors are also frequently seen in eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Some of the behaviors characterized by eating disorders can be considered compulsive and ritualistic, especially those performed in an attempt to remove the anxiety or discomfort associated with eating. Obsessions that could lead to compulsive behaviors include thoughts related to weight, eating, food, or body image.

Examples of compulsive behaviors commonly associated with eating disorders include excessive exercise, constant body checking, counting calories, frequent weighing, use of laxatives to reduce weight, and following particular “rules” or “rituals” when eating a meal.

Psychotherapy, medication, or both are typically successful in treating these disorders.

If you or a loved one appears to be suffering from OCD or an eating disorder, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Ekern, J., & Karges, C. (2014, March 31). OCD and Eating Disorders Often Occur Together. Retrieved April 16, 2018, from https://www.eatingdisorderhope.com/treatment-for-eating-disorders/co-occurring-dual-diagnosis/ocd-obsessive-compulsive-disorder/ocd-and-eating-disorders-often-occur-together

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

narcissism-and-health

You’ve heard about bipolar personality obsessive-compulsive disorder, paranoia disorder, and probably a handful of other ones. One of the less uncommon and less discussed one is narcissistic personality disorder. This is a mental condition in which a person has an inflated sense of their own importance, a deep need for excessive attention and admiration, troubled relationships, and a lack of empathy for others.

What lies behind the disorder? Behind the mask of extreme confidence, arrogance and/or pompousness there is a fragile selfesteem that’s vulnerable to the slightest criticism, insult, or contempt. They may find their relationships unfulfilling, and others may not enjoy being around them when they feel the persons need for superiority which can lead to actions and words of disrespect.

Why does this disorder get diagnosed? Most believe that the causes are due to genetics as well as social factors, and the person’s early development such as family, personal temperament, school system, and learned coping skills to deal with stress.

What are some more possible symptoms? It’s their way or the highway, they won’t ever be wrong in situations, and if they admit to be wrong, they will put another down just in order to convince themselves that they are in the right, they can have ease lying; they can charm, falsely accuse, mooch, betray, mirror, compete, destroy, and manipulate easily. They are known also to commonly abuse drugs, alcohol or nicotine.

What problems does this disorder cause? It causes unstable and trouble in relationships, work, school or financial affairs. People with narcissistic personality disorder may be generally unhappy, and may take this out on another human and gain the personality trait that is sadistic.

How can we help the issue? After acceptance, treatment of this personality disorder typically involves long-term therapy, possible medication, and continuing to relate better with others in relationships, working towards empathy, understanding the cause of ones emotions and what drives one to compete and distrust, practicing tolerance, and trying to release ones desire for unattainable goals and ideal conditions.

By Isabelle Kreydin

If you or a person you know is struggling with a narcissistic personality disorder, or any personality disorder, it may be beneficial to have them contact a mental health professional and receive therapy for their illnesses. The psychologists, psychiatrists, and therapists at Arista Counseling and Psychiatric Services can help.  Contact the Bergen County, NJ or Manhattan offices at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920.  Visit http://www.acenterfortherapy.com for more information.

To find out more information, visit: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/narcissistic-personality-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20366662

Panic Attacks/Panic Disorder: Living with the Unexpected

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Panic Attacks / Panic Disorder; Anxiety

By: Denice Vidals

Panic attacks or panic disorder affects about 6 million American adults and has been found to be twice as common in women as in men. A person with panic disorder experiences sudden and unexpected panic attacks that can last for several minutes or longer. Panic attacks are intense episodes of overwhelming fear and anxiety that can cause physical symptoms. In order to be diagnosed with panic disorder, at least four physical symptoms must be present during an attack. These symptoms may include sweating, palpitations, shaking, a shortness of breath, choking, chest pain, nausea, feeling lightheaded or dizzy, feeling disconnected from reality, and chills or hot flashes.

Individuals with panic disorder are also constantly worried about when their next attack will happen. This is called anticipatory anxiety. Individuals may avoid certain situations or places where past panic attacks have occurred. These avoidance behaviors may lead to additional problems if one’s anxiety or worry does not allow one to continue normal daily functioning. Psychotherapy and medication have both been found to effectively treat panic disorder.

If you or someone you know is suffering from panic attacks, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively at (201)-368-3700 or (212)-722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Panic disorder: When fear overwhelms. Retrieved on March 29, 2018 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/panic-disorder-when-fear-overwhelms/index.shtml

Psychology Today. (2018, March 5). Retrieved on March 29, 2018 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/panic-disorder

ADHD: Recognizing Symptoms

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ADHD: Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

By: Denice Vidals

ADHD is a common disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention and hyperactivity. Symptoms of ADHD can appear as early as 3 to 6 years old and can continue into adolescence and adulthood. In order for an adult to be diagnosed with ADHD, symptoms must have been present prior to 12 years old. Although everyone may experience feelings of impulsivity and inattention, people with ADHD experience these symptoms more severely, more often, and they often interfere with how the individual functions in social settings.

According to the DSM-V, a diagnosis of ADHD is given when 6 or more symptoms of inattention are present for children up to age 16. Only 5 symptoms of inattention are needed for adults and regardless of age, symptoms must be present for at least 6 months. Inattention can be characterized as having trouble paying attention, overlooking details, making careless mistakes, being easily distracted by unrelated stimuli, being forgetful, and having trouble organizing tasks and following instructions.

A diagnosis of ADHD can also be given when 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity are present for children up to age 16. Only 5 symptoms are required for a diagnosis of ADHD for adults. These symptoms must be present for at least 6 months as well. Hyperactivity can be described as constantly being in motion, interrupting others during conversation or activities, constantly talking, unable to wait patiently for one’s turn, squirming in one’s seat, and fidgeting with one’s hands or feet often.

If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of ADHD, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, August 31). Retrieved March 22, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html

National Institute of Mental Health. (2017, November). Retrieved March 22, 2018 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd.shtml

Paranoia / Paranoid Personality Disorder

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Paranoia / Paranoid Personality Disorder

By Denice Vidals

Paranoia or paranoid personality disorder is characterized by unjustified suspicion and extreme distrust. An individual suffering from paranoid personality disorder commonly misinterprets the actions and intentions of others as being spiteful and always “out to get them.” They will rarely confide in others because of the fear of being betrayed and exploited.

Common symptoms of paranoia or paranoid personality disorder include, but are not limited to, suspicion, a concern with hidden motives, an inability to collaborate, social isolation, detachment, hostility, and a poor self image.

Medication and psychotherapy have been found to alleviate symptoms of paranoia. Medication should be used for specific conditions of the disorder that disrupt normal functioning, such as anxiety. Psychotherapy has been found to be the most beneficial as a strong trusting therapist-client relationship can be established.

If you or someone you know is suffering from paranoia, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/.

Paranoid Personality Disorder. (2017, February 14). Retrieved February 15, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/paranoid-personality-disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder: DSM-5

By: Cassie Sieradzky

Oppositional defiant disorder is characterized by a pattern of angry/irritable mood swings, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness. For a diagnosis to be warranted, symptoms must be present for at least 6 months and the individual must display at least 4 symptoms. The behaviors are associated with distress to the individual or those in their immediate circle, such as family or friends. The individual’s behavior may also negatively impact important areas of daily functioning, such as school or work.

A common symptom in individuals with oppositional defiant disorder is an angry/irritable mood. For example, they may often lose their temper, be touchy or easily annoyed, or are commonly angry and resentful. Argumentative/defiant behavior is also a core symptom of this disorder. Someone with oppositional defiant disorder may argue with authority figures or, for children and adolescents, with adults. They may often actively defy or refuse to comply with requests from authority figures or with rules. Additionally, they may deliberately annoy others and blame people for their mistakes or misbehavior. Vindictiveness or spitefulness at least twice within the past 6 months is also a symptom of oppositional defiant disorder.

The diagnosis must be developmentally appropriate. For children younger than 5, the behavior should occur on most days for a period of at least 6 months, while individuals 5 years or older should exhibit symptoms at least once per week for at least 6 months. The disorder varies by severity as to whether the condition is mild, moderate, or severe. Mild oppositional defiant disorder is diagnosed when symptoms are confined to only one setting, moderate severity is diagnosed when symptoms are present in at least two settings, and severe oppositional defiant disorder is diagnosed when symptoms are present in three or more settings.

If you or a loved one appears to be suffering from oppositional defiant disorder, licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Oppositional Defiant Disorder DSM V – Pearson Clinical NA. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2018, from http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=2282EE88A8B54A4EBBE6371B24777ECE&CID=16FD8C7C2F796F5D053A87C32ED66EB9&rd=1&h=V2GxYeJJUKwraVQBc2bMHklhpE-eVv00fBjh-V2nxkY&v=1&r=http://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/assets/basc-3/basc3resources/DSM5_DiagnosticCriteria_OppositionalDefiantDisorder.pdf&p=DevEx,5064.1

The History of Hypnotherapy

By Jennifer Guzman

Have you ever “zoned out” while driving and found yourself driving from one location to another without realizing how you got there? This is like how hypnosis feels, and is actually something we call “highway hypnosis”, in which you are in a natural hypnotic state.

Hypnosis is a technique that is increasingly being sought-after and used in today’s clinical practices, but little do people know that hypnosis is a technique that has been used for centuries, dating to as far back as the 4th and 5th centuries B.C. in Ancient Egypt! However, much credit is given to 18th century German physician, Frank Mesmer, who coined the term, “mesmerism” in reference to what we now call “hypnosis” and is the first dated medical practitioner to practice hypnosis for therapy. Mesmer utilized suggestion for his patients in order to cure their illness. One of the first patients with whom Mesmer used hypnosis had consisted of placing a magnet on her head in order to revitalize blood flow in her brain, which was believed to be the cause of her tooth and headaches. The magnet, coupled with Mesmer’s theatrical hand gestures had allowed the patient to believe that the fluids in her brain were stabilizing, when truly, the magnet and hand gestures had done nothing. In reality, the suggestions he was giving her were easing her aches. This discovery opened up a wide array of questions about hypnosis and brought about a new treatment to the field of psychology.

Following Mesmer was James Braid, who is regarded as the “Father of Hypnosis”. Braid delved into why hypnosis was effective during therapy session. He also conducted intensive research to identify key methods that could put someone into a trance state through analysis of the physiological components of hypnosis. Braid was the figure who coined the term, “Hypnosis”.
Much credit to modern day hypnotherapy must be attributed to 20th century psychologist, Milton H. Erickson, who created a multitude of hypnotherapy methods that are currently being used in today’s clinical practices. Erickson places great emphasis on language in order to tap into the unconscious mind. He also emphasizes the importance of allowing the patient to feel positive feelings with his aid. The methods help the patient heal through their own willpower.

Even Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, utilized hypnosis in his therapy, although he did not inherently acknowledge that what he sometimes performed on his patients was hypnotherapy. However, Freud discarded the use of hypnosis in his practice because his techniques did not work on his patients. In order to be properly hypnotized, the hypnotist should be a licensed mental health professional, such as the psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy.

Contrary to the popular belief that when someone is under hypnosis, they are not in control of their own bodies—this is a myth. When under hypnosis, you are free to intervene and break out of your trance state if you feel uncomfortable or become distracted; however, doing so will decrease the effectiveness of the session. In order to go through successful hypnosis, one must be willing to be hypnotized, open to suggestion, and trust the hypnotherapist.

Hypnotherapy is typically used to successfully treat issues such as Depression, Anxiety, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), weight gain or weight loss, Insomnia, smoking cessation, and more.

If you or someone you know is interested in hypnosis or psychotherapy, please contact our offices in New York or New Jersey to make an appointment with one of the licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. For hypnotherapy, please ask to make an appointment with one of our hypnotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information on our services, please visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/ If you or someone you know is in a crisis, please call 1-800-273-8255.

References:

Retrieved March 23, 2018, from http://www.historyofhypnosis.org/
Hammer, G.A. Orne, M.T. Hypnosis. Retrieved March 32, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/science/hypnosis

Compulsive Sexual Behavior

Compulsive Sexual Behavior/ Hypersexuality:
By: Cassie Sieradzky

Compulsive sexual behavior, also known as hypersexuality or sexual addiction, is characterized by frequent sexual fantasies, urges, and behaviors. These intense and repetitive preoccupations are uncontrollable and distressing to the individual, which can result in impaired daily functioning. Compulsive sexual behavior is more common in men and usually develops during late adolescence or early adulthood. This disorder is often undiagnosed because the individual may feel embarrassed about their behavior and unwilling to disclose information that could lead to a diagnosis and they may be unaware that this disorder can be successfully treated.

Compulsive sexual behavior can be diagnosed if a person experiences 3 or more symptoms for over 6 months. The symptoms include time consumed by sexual urges/fantasies/behaviors repetitively interferes with other important facets of life, repetitively engaging in sexual fantasies/urges/behaviors in response to negative mood states, repetitively engaging in sexual fantasies/urges/behaviors in response to stressful life events, repetitive but unsuccessful efforts to control these symptoms, and repetitively engaging in sexual behaviors while disregarding the risk for physical or emotional harm to self or others. Compulsive sexual behavior is highly comorbid and research suggests that about 50% of adults diagnosed with this disorder also meet criteria for at least 1 other psychiatric disorder, such as mood, anxiety, substance use, impulse control, or personality disorders. This disorder also comes with increased risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Psychotherapy and some medications are successful in treating compulsive sexual disorder.

If you or a loved one appears to be suffering from compulsive sexual behavior, licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Grant, J. E. (2018, February). Compulsive sexual behavior: A nonjudgmental approach. Current Psychiatry, 17(2), 34-45.

Social Anxiety Disorder

Signs and Symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder:

By: Cassie Sieradzky

Social anxiety disorder is characterized by severe anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations. An individual with social anxiety disorder may have a persistent, intense, and chronic fear of being watched and judged by others, which can interfere with their daily functioning. Social anxiety disorder can be limited to only one type of situation, such as a fear of speaking or performing in public, or whenever an individual is around other people. The feared situation is avoided or endured with extreme anxiety and distress. In addition, they often experience low self-esteem and depression and have a hard time making or keeping friends.

Physical symptoms such as blushing, profuse sweating, upset stomach, and trembling often accompany the intense stress of social anxiety disorder. These visible symptoms intensify the fear of disapproval and often become an additional focus of fear. As people with social anxiety disorder worry about experiencing the physical symptoms, the greater their chances are of developing them.

About seven percent of the U.S. population is estimated to have social anxiety disorder within a 12-month period. Social anxiety disorder occurs twice as often in women than men and typically begins in childhood or early adolescence. Social anxiety disorder often runs in families and may be comorbid with depression or other anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is not uncommon for individuals with social anxiety disorder to self-medicate with alcohol or other drugs, which can lead to addiction.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy that is very effective in treating social anxiety. CBT and behavioral therapy are used to reduce anxiety by managing negative beliefs or behaviors that help maintain the disorder. Medications, in conjunction with psychotherapy, can also play a role in treatment.

If you or a loved one appears to be suffering from social anxiety disorder, licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit http://www.counselingpsychotherapynjny.com/

Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia). (n.d.). Retrieved March 26, 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/social-anxiety-disorder-social-phobia