PTSD in Women

By: Catherine Cain

Experiencing trauma is common and sometimes it may develop into PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder. While PTSD does affect men and women, women are significantly more likely to experience it than men. So, what is PTSD?

Post-traumatic stress disorder develops after someone experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, and the symptoms caused by this trauma continue for more than a month. While PTSD usually develops in the month following the event, it may develop months or even years after. Symptoms of PTSD include intrusive memories, avoidance of anything or anyone that reminds them of the trauma, changes in mood or thinking, and changed in behavior.

Females are twice as likely to experience PTSD as men. Why is that? While exposure to trauma is lower for women than men the type of trauma is significant in the development of PTSD. Men experience traumas that result in injuries or death, such as accidents, combats, and physical assaults. Women, however, experience childhood abuse, rape, and sexual assault. The effects of sexual assault are so detrimental that in the 2 weeks following an incident of sexual assault, 94% of women experienced symptoms of PTSD.

Another key reason for this difference is the difference in coping strategies. Everyone has heard of the “fight or flight” response to dangerous situations, but it is found that women often use the “tend and befriend” response following an event. “Tending” is taking care of those around you, while “befriending” is reaching out to others for support. Because of this reliance on others, women become more vulnerable to PTSD symptoms if their support system fails them.

If you or someone you know is struggling with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, please contact our psychotherapy offices in New York or New Jersey to talk to one of our licensed professional psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, or psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, please visit


PTSD Researcher Finds Link between Stress and Trauma

By Diana Bae

Rachel Yehuda, PhD, is a distinguished researcher and Director of Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Icahn School of Medicine of Mount Sinai. She has conducted numerous prominent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) studies and treatment. One of her most well-known studies researched Vietnam War combat veterans with PTSD and found that they had significantly lower cortisol levels than veterans without PTSD. Cortisol is a hormone that controls stress and although it is thought that more cortisol resulted in more stress, Dr. Yehuda showed that that is not the case. Thus, there needs to be a sufficient amount of cortisol to handle stress and reduce the risk of developing trauma. Now, Dr. Yehuda plans to test a drug, oral hydrocortisone, to see whether it can replicate the cortisol naturally produced in the body. If this drug is successful, it may prevent PTSD and other similar disorders.

Arista Psychological and Psychiatric Services understands the problems caused by PTSD and are dedicated to provide proper attention and treatment. If you or someone you know would like to set up an appointment for our counseling services, contact us at our offices in Paramus, NJ (201) 368-3700 or in Manhattan, NY (212) 996-3939. For more information, please visit our website

Source: Inside, a publication of the Mount Sinai Health System, Issue: November 25 – December 15, 2019;  Picture Source: http:// www., https://

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder


By: Cassie Sieradzky

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is classified in the DSM-5 as a trauma and stress related disorder. PTSD is commonly triggered after a traumatic event, such as violent personal assaults, natural or unnatural disasters, accidents, or military combat. PTSD is frequently comorbid with depression, substance abuse, or anxiety disorders. For PTSD to be diagnosed, symptoms must be present for at least 1 month and they must create distress in the individual and impact daily functioning.

First, an individual must be exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence, in the following way: direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma.

One intrusion symptom must also be present. The intrusion symptoms include unwanted upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, emotional distress after exposure to traumatic reminders, and physical reactivity after exposure to traumatic reminders. Avoidance of trauma-related stimuli after the trauma occurred is also a symptom of PTSD. For example, an individual may avoid trauma-related thoughts or feelings or situations that remind them of the trauma. Two symptoms of negative changes in thought are also required for a diagnosis. An individual with PTSD may experience an inability to recall key features of the trauma, overly negative thoughts or assumptions about oneself or the world, exaggerated blame of self or others for causing the trauma, negative affect, decreased interest in activities, and/or feelings of isolation. Lastly, to be diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, the individual must experience alterations in reactions and behaviors, such as irritability/aggression, risky or destructive behavior, hypervigilance, heightened startle reaction, difficulty concentrating, or difficulty sleeping.

If you or a loved one appears to be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, the licensed psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and psychotherapists at Arista Counseling & Psychotherapy can assist you. Contact our Paramus, NJ or Manhattan, NY offices respectively, at (201) 368-3700 or (212) 722-1920 to set up an appointment. For more information, visit

DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD. (2018, March 14). Retrieved April 02, 2018, from

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved April 02, 2018, from